• United Nations Convention Against Corruption
  • Arab Convention Against Corruption
  • National Anti-Corruption Strategy
  • Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission
  • Access to Information
  • Protection of Whistle-blowers
  • Declaration of Assets and Interests
  • Criminalization of Illicit Enrichment
  • Sectoral Corruption Risk Management
  • Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network
  • Somalia
  • Kuwait
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Tunisia
  • Comoros
  • Algeria
  • Lebanon
  • Syria
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  • Oman
  • Yemen
  • Djibouti
  • Palestine
  • Libya
  • Egypt
  • Sudan
  • Morocco
  • Bahrain
  • Qatar
  • United Arab Emirates
  • State party
  • Signatory state
  • Not a State party nor a Signatory state
  • State party
  • Signatory party
  • Not a State party nor a Signatory state
  • Exist
  • under development
  • Does not exist
  • No information available
  • Exists and operational
  • Exists but not operational
  • Does not exist

    The colors in the key map are based on the Global Right to Information (Rti) rating, which measures the strength of the legal framework for the right to access information, on a scale ranging from 0 (the weakest legal framework) to 150 (the strongest legal framework).

  • More than 75
  • Less than 75
  • Does not exist
  • Not assessed

    The colors in the key map are based on the compatibility of the protection of whistle-blowers’ provisions with article 33 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption in all Arab countries. 

  • Generally compatible
  • Partially compatible
  • Does not exist

    The colors in the key map are based on the extent to which the legal texts related to declaration of assets and interests are compatible with good practices derived from international standards and comparative experiences, including: the obligation to submit statements periodically, the comprehensiveness of the content of the declaration, the existence of a mechanism to regularly verify the validity and integrity of the information declared, the existence of deterrent penalties at all levels, and the extent of transparency in sharing the information while protecting personal data. 

  • Generally compatible
  • Partially compatible
  • Does not exist

    The colors in the key map are based on the compatibility of the criminalization of illicit enrichment’s provisions with article 20 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption in all Arab countries. 

  • Generally compatible
  • Partially compatible
  • Does not exist / incompatible
  • Sectoral Corruption Risk Management institutionalized
  • In process of institutionalizing Sectoral Corruption Risk Management
  • No Information available

    Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of Transparency International ranks countries by measuring the perceived levels of public sector corruption on a scale from 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean). Results shown on the map are the 2022 CPI results.

  • 67 to 100
  • 34 to 66
  • 0 to 33
  • Represented in ACINET Governmental membership and Non-Governmental Group
  • Represented in ACINET Governmental membership only
  • Not represented in ACINET Governmental membership nor its Non-Governmental Group
Kuwait Saudi Arabia Tunisia Djibouti Somalia Libya Morocco Mauritania Sudan Yemen United Arab Emirates Jordan Oman Qatar Palestine Bahrain Iraq Egypt Syria Lebanon Comoros Algeria

Mauritania

Mauritania became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 25 October 2006

Mauritania signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party yet

Mauritania does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy, however there is an Anti-Bribery startegy since 2011

Mauritania does not have a Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission

Whistleblowers’ Protection is organized by Article 19 of the Anti-Corruption Act

Mauritania does not have an Access to Information Law

Mauritania is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.54 of 2007 on Financial Transparency in public life

No Information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under Article 16 of the Anti-Corruption Act

Mauritania scored 30/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Algeria

Algeria became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 25 August 2004

Algeria became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 30 October 2014

Algeria adopted a National Strategy for Transparency and Prevention of Corruption for the period (2023-2027), it is the country’s first strategy

The High Authority for Transparency and Preventing and Combatting Corruption was established by (Law No. 01 of 2006) 

Algeria does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Algeria does not have an Access to Information Law

Algeria is represented in the Governmental Group of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No. 01 of 2006 on preventing and combating corruption

No Information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption

Algeria scored 33/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Tunisia

Tunisia became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 23 September 2008

Tunisia signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party yet

Tunisia had a National Anti-Corruption and Good Governance Strategy for the period (2016-2020)

Instance Nationale de Lutte Contre la Corruption was established under (Decree No. 120 of 2011) on Anti-Corruption and amended by (Law No. 59 of 2017).

Whistleblowers’ Protection is organized by Law No.10 of 2017

Access to Information is organized by Law No.22 of 2016

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.46 of 2018 on asset and interest declarations, illicit enrichment and conflict of interest

Tunisia is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Sectoral Corruption Risk Management is institutionalized in Transport, Water and Health sectors

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.46 of 2018) on asset and interest declarations, illicit enrichment and conflict of interest

Tunisia scored 40/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Lebanon

Lebanon became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 22 April 2009

Lebanon is not a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption

Lebanon adopted its first ever National Anti-Corruption Strategy for the timeframe 2020-2025

The National Anti-Corruption Commission was established by (Law No. 175 of 2020)

Whistleblowers’ Protection is organized by Law No.83 in 2018, later amended by Law No.182 in 2020

Access to Information is organized by Law No. 28 of 2017 and amended by Law No. 233 of 2021 accompanied by implementation decree No. 6940

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.189 of 2020

Lebanon is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Sectoral Corruption Risk Management is institutionalized in the Lebanese University / Higher Education sector

Illicit enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.189 of 2020)

Lebanon scored 24/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Syria

Syria signed the UN Convention against Corruption on 9 December 2003 but did not become a state party yet

Syria signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010, but did not become a state party yet

No information available about a strategy

Syria does not have a Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission

Syria does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Syria does not have an Access to Information Law

Syria does not have a Law for Declaration of Assets and Interests

 

No information available

Syria does not have an Illicit Enrichment law

Syria scored 13/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Syria is not represented in ACINET Governmental membership nor its Non-Governmental Group

Iraq

Iraq became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 17 March 2008

Iraq became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 30 May 2013

Iraq adopted its second National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2021-2024). The first covered (2010-2014) 

The Federal Commission of Integrity was established under (Law No.30 of 2011) and amended by (Law No.30 in year 2019)

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized by Law No. 58 of 2017

Iraq does not have an Access to Information Law

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized  by article 4 of Law No. 30 of 2011 of the Commission of Integrity, amended by Law No.30 of 2019

Sectoral Corruption Risk Management institutionalized in Higher Education (Kurdistan)

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.15 of 1958). Some of its provisions were amended under (Law.20 of 1963)

Iraq scored 23/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Iraq is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Jordan

Jordan became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 24 February 2005

Jordan became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 November 2012

Jordan adopted a National Integrity and Anti-Corruption Strategy (2020-2025). 

The Jordanian Integrity and Anti-Corruption Commission was established under Law No. 62 of 2006, later amended in 2016 and 2019. 

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized by decision No.62 of 2014

Access Information is organized by Law No.47 of 2007

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No. 21 of 2014 on Illicit Enrichment 

In process of institutionalizing Sectoral Corruption Risk Management

Jordan is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Illicit Enrichment was first criminalized under (Law No.54 of 2006 on Financial Disclosure)

Jordan scored 47/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 29 April 2013

Saudi Arabia became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 29 September 2014

Saudi Arabia adopted its National Strategy for Maintaining Integrity and Combating Corruption through (Resolution No.13 in 2007).

The National Anti-Corruption Commission in Saudi Arabia was established by a (Royal decree No. (A/ 65) of 2011)

Saudi Arabia does not have Whistleblowers' Protection law

 

Saudi Arabia does not have an Access to Information Law

Saudi Arabia does not have a Law for Declaration of Assets and Interests

In process of institutionalizing Sectoral Corruption Risk Management

Saudi Arabia does not have an Illicit Enrichment law

Saudi Arabia scored 51/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Saudi Arabia is represented in the Governmental Group of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network

Oman

Oman became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 9 January 2014

Oman became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 11 June 2013

Oman does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy

Oman does not have a Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission

Oman does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Oman does not have an Access to Information Law

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under article 12 of Law No. 112 of 2011 on protecting public money & preventing conflict of interests

No information available

Oman does not have an Illicit Enrichment law

Oman scored 44/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Oman is not represented in ACINET Governmental membership nor its Non-Governmental Group

Yemen

Yemen became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 7 November 2005

Yemen signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party yet

Yemen's adopted its National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2022-2026)

The National Anti-Corruption Commission in Yemen was established by (Law No.39 of 2006)

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under chapter 3 of Law No.39 of 2006

Access to Information is organized by Law No. 13 of 2012

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.30 of 2006

No information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.30 of 2006) on Asset Disclosure

Yemen scored 16/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Yemen is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Djibouti

Djibouti became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 20 April 2005

Djibouti signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party

Djibouti does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy

The National Commission for Preventing and Combating Corruption in Djibouti was established under Law no.03/AN/13/7eme, but the agency is not operational

Djibouti does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Djibouti does not have an Access to Information Law

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No. n°03/AN/13/7ème on prevention and combating of corruption

No information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.111/ AN/ 11 of 2011) on the fight against terrorism and other serious offenses

Djibouti scored 30/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Somalia

Somalia is not a state party in UN Convention against Corruption

Somalia is not a state party in Arab Convention against Corruption

Somalia adopted a National Anti-Corruption Strategy for the period (2020-2023)

Somalia does not have a Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission

Somalia does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Somalia does not have an Access to Information Law

Somalia does not have a Law for Declaration of Assets and Interests

No information available

Somalia does not have an Illicit Enrichment law

Somalia scored 12/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Somalia is not represented in ACINET official membership nor its Non-Governmental Group

Palestine

Palestine became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 2 April 2014

The State of Palestine became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 May 2013

Palestine adopted a National Anti-Corruption Strateg for the period (2020-2023). 

The Palestinian Anti-Corruption Commission was established under the (amended anti-corruption law No.1 of 2005)

Whistleblowers’ Protection is organized under the government decision No. 17 of 2019

Palestine does not have an Access to Information Law

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by some provisions of the anti-corruption Law No.1 of 2005

In process of institutionalizing Sectoral Corruption Risk Management in Health and Finance

Palestine is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.1 of 2005). The Law was amended in 2010 and renamed as (amended anti-corruption law)

Palestine is not rated on the Corruption Perceptions Index

Libya

Libya became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 7 June 2005

Libya signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state member yet

Libya does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy

The National Anti-Corruption Commission in Libya was established under (Law No.11 of 2014) 

Libya does not have a Whistleblowers' Protection law

Libya does not have an Access to Information Law

Libya is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No. 10 of 1994 on Illicit Enrichment

In process of institutionalizing Sectoral Corruption Risk Management

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.3 of 1970) and was later replaced by (Law No.3 of 1986)

Libya scored 17/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Egypt

Egypt became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 25 February 2005

Egypt became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 18 June 2014

Egypt adopted its third National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2023-2030)

The Administrative Control Authority in Egypt's Anti-Corruption Commission was established under (Law 64 of 1964)

Egypt does have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Egypt does not have an Access to Information Law

Egypt is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No. 62 of 1975

In process of institutionalizing Sectoral Corruption Risk Management

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No. 62 of 1975)

Egypt scored 30/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

 

Sudan

Sudan became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 5 September 2014

Sudan became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 23 October 2012

Sudan does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy

The National Commission for Transparency, Integrity and Combating Corruption was established under (Law no.8 of 2016) 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized by article 14 of Law No.8 of 2016

Access to Information is organized by ATI law of 2015

Sudan does not have a Law for Declaration of Assets and Interests

Sudan is represented in the Governmental Group of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

No information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 164 of (Law 1984 on Civil Transactions), it was criminalized under article 6 of the (Illicit and Suspicious Enrichment Act of 1989)

Sudan scored 22/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

 

Morocco

Morocco became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 9 May 2007

Morocco became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 26 September 2012

Morocco adopted a National Anti-Corruption Strategy for the timeframe 2016-2025

The National Authority for Probity, Prevention and Fight against Corruption is organized under Law 46-19 of 2021

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized by Law No. 37.10 in 2011

Access to Information is organized by Law No. 31.13 of 2015, enacted through Royal Decree No. 1.18.15 of 2018

Morocco is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.25 of 1992

Sectoral Corruption Risk Management is institutionalized in the health sector

Morocco does not have an illicit enrichment law

Morocco scored 38/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Kuwait

Kuwait became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 16 February 2007

Kuwait became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 5 September 2013

Kuwait adopted its first National Anti-Corruption Strategy for timeframe 2019-2024

Kuwait’s Anti-Corruption Commission was established under (Law No.2 of 2016)

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under (Decree for Law No. 24 of 2012) on the establishment of the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority

Access to Information is organized by Law No. 12 of 2020

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by provision under Law No.2 of 2016 establishing the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority

No information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.2 of 2016) establishing the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority and special provisions on asset declaration

Kuwait scored 42/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Kuwait is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Bahrain

Bahrain became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 5 October 2010

Bahrain signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party yet

Bahrain does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy

Bahrain does not have a Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission

Bahrain does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Bahrain does not have an Access to Information Law

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.32 of 2010 on Financial Disclosure and decree No.82 of 2012

No information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.32 of 2010 on Financial Disclosure)

Bahrain scored 44/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Bahrain is represented in both the Governmental and Non-Governmental Groups of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET

Qatar

Qatar became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 30 January 2007

Qatar became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 5 March 2012

Qatar does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy

The Administrative Control and Transparency Authority in Qatar was established by the (Emiri resolution No.75 of 2011) and amended by (Emiri resolution No.6 of 2015)

Qatar does not have a Whistleblowers’ Protection law

Access to Information is organized by Law No.9 of 2022

Qatar does not have a Law for Declaration of Assets and Interests

No information available

Qatar does not have an Illicit Enrichment law

Qatar scored 58/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Qatar is represented in the Governmental Group of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET)

United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 22 February 2006

United Arab Emirates became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 4 July 2012

The United Arab Emirates does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy.

Emirates does not have a Specialized Anti-Corruption Commission

Whistleblowers Protection is organized by Law No. 14 of 2020 

Emirates does not have an Access to Information Law

Emirates does not have a Law for Declaration of Assets and Interests

No information available

Emirates does not have an Illicit Enrichment law

United Arab Emirates scored 67/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

UAE is not represented in ACINET Governmental membership nor its Non-Governmental Group

Comoros

Comoros became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 11 October 2012

Comoros is not a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption

The National Anti-Corruption Strategy of Comoros was first adopted in 2012.

The National Commission for the Prevention and Fight against Corruption (CNPLC) in Comoros was established through Chapter 4 of Law No.08-13 of 2008

Whistleblowers’ Protection is organized by Law No.08-13 of 2008 on Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities

Comoros does not have an Access to Information Law

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized by Law No.08-13 of 2008 on Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities

No information available

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.08-13 of 2008) on Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities

Comoros scored 19/100 on the 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index

Comoros is represented in the Governmental membership of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET)

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Mauritania

Last updated on 22 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 6 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

General Information

Area: 1.03 million km²

Population: 4.52 million (World Bank, 2019)

Political System:

Human Development Index: 0.546 out of 1 (UNDP, 2020) 

Key Information

GDP/capita: 1649.46 USD (UNCTADSTAT data center,2019)

Gross Debt:  1745.70 Billion MRU (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt % GDP: 79.27% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under Article 16 of the Anti-Corruption Act.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under Law No.54 of 2007 on Financial Transparency in public life and the circulars issued by financial transparency committee for public life. The provision is partially compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Whistleblower Protection is organized under Article 19 of the Anti-Corruption Act.

 

Mauritania does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy, however there is an Anti-Bribery strategy since 2011.

 

Mauritania does not have laws on Access to Information nor a Specialized Anti-Corruption Agency.

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with articles 32 and 33 of United Nations Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Mauritania became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 25 October 2006.

 

In 2017, Mauritania completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters 3 and 4 of the UN Convention against Corruption. The executive summary was published. Mauritania was reviewed by the Central African Republic and Marshall Islands. 

 

Mauritania’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters 2 and 5 of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 2 of the review cycle (2017-2018). It is not yet completed. Mauritania should be reviewed by Nigeria and Philippines.

 

Mauritania signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a State member yet.

 

The State Inspectorate General in Mauritania joined Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, Réseau Mauritanien pour l’Action Sociale joined ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Algeria

Last updated on 20 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

General Information

Area: 2.382 million km²

Population: 44.62 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Semi - Presidential

Human Development Index: 0.745/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4119.43 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  9996.95 Billion DZD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 49.15% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is organized under article 37 of (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption. This provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under article 4 of (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption and through the Presidential Decree No.415-06 of 2006 which explains procedures for submitting financial disclosure documents for public servants who are not listed in the law. The decree also provides a complete list of public servants that are required to submit financial disclosure documents. This provision is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Algeria does not have laws on Access to Information nor Whistleblowers Protection.

 

Algeria's first ever National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2023-2027) was launched in July 2023 to be implemented. 

 

The High Authority for Transparency, Prevention and Fight against Corruption in Algeria was established under (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption. It is organized under (Law No. 22-08 of 2022) defining its organization, composition and powers.

Laws
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and Operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with articles 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Other information

Algeria became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 25 August 2004.

 

In 2015, Algeria completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters 3 and 4 of the UN Convention against Corruption. The full (country report) was published. Algeria was reviewed by Niger and Latvia.

 

In 2020, Algeria completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters 2 and 5 of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) of the country report was published. Algeria was reviewed by Kenya and Ghana.

 

Algeria became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 30 October 2014.

 

The High Authority for Transparency, Prevention and Fight against Corruption in Algeria is an official member of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

UN Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET only Not an official member of ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Tunisia

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

General Information

Area: 163,610 km²

Population: 11.94 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Quasi/Reformed Parliamentary

Human Development Index: 0.731 / 1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 3938.67 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  90.92 Billion TND (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 78.67% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is organized under article 37 of (Law No.46 of 2018) on asset and interest declarations, illicit enrichment and conflict of interest. This provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.46 of 2018) on asset and interest declarations, illicit enrichment and conflict of interest. In addition to the governmental order (No.818 of 2018) on adopting the template of Declaration of assets and interests, and minimum threshold of assets, loans, and gifts to be declared. This law is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Access to Information is organized under (Law No.22 of 2016). According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Tunisia scored 120/150 points for the strength of the legal framework.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under (Law No.10 of 2017). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption 

 

Tunisia adopted a National Anti-Corruption and Good Governance Strategy during the period (2016-2020).

 

Instance Nationale de Lutte Contre la Corruption was established under some provisions of the (framework Decree No. 120 of 2011) related to Anti-Corruption. Some of its provisions were amended by the (Law No. 59 of 2017) on Good Governance and Anti -Corruption Commission. The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions however it is currently not operational.

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Tunisia became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 23 September 2008.

 

In 2015, Tunisia completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Tunisia was reviewed by Côte d'Ivoire and Togo.

 

Tunisia’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption is scheduled for Year 5 of the review cycle (2020-2021). Tunisia should be reviewed by Rwanda and Ethiopia.

 

Tunisia signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state member.

 

Each of the Court of Accounts, Commission of General Control of Public Departments at the Prime Ministry, High Authority for Administrative and Financial Control, Anti-Corruption Commission, Governance Services at the Presidency of Government and Ministry of Justice in Tunisia are official members of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Each of the Faculty of Social, Justice and Political Sciences at the University of Carthage and the Institut Arab des Chefs d’Entreprises are members of its Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Lebanon

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

General Information

Area: 10,452 km2

Population: 6.76 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Parliamentary Democratic Republic 

Human Development Index: 0.706/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 7174.74USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 146518.15 Billion LBP (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 161.82% (IMF, 2020)
 

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

 

Illicit enrichment is organized under article 10 of (Law No.189 of 2020). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.189 of 2020). This law is generally compatible with the best practices on declarations of assets and interests. 

 

Access to Information is organized under (Law 28 of 2017). In 2021, it was amended by (Law No. 233) and the (decree No.6940) was issued determining the specifications of implementing the Law. According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Lebanon scored 70/150 points for the strength of the legal framework.

 

Whistleblower Protection is organized under (Law No.83 of 2018). The law was amended in May 2020 extending protections to witnesses, experts and victims of corruption under (Law No.182). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Lebanon's National Anti-Corruption Strategy was adopted in May 2020 for 5 years (2020-2025) and published the a report on progress of implementation in 2021

 

The National Anti-Corruption Commission was established by (Law No. 175 of 2020) on "anti-corruption in the public sector and the creation of the National Anti-Corruption Institution". Members of the commission were appointed in 2022 and it is currently operational. The commission has preventive and investigative measures.

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Lebanon became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 22 April 2009.

 

In 2016, Lebanon completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the (executive summary) and the (full country report) were published. Lebanon was reviewed by Iran and Seychelles.

 

Lebanon’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption is scheduled for Year 5 of the review cycle (2020-2021). Lebanon should be reviewed by Cambodia and Mali.

 

Lebanon is not a State party to the Arab Convention against Corruption

 

Each of the Court of Audit, Central Inspection, Ministry of Justice, Public Prosecution, Ministry of State for Administrative Reform, Higher Committee for Discipline in Lebanon and National Anti-Corruption Commission are Official Members of Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of the Lebanese Transparency Association, Gherbal Initiative, as well as each of Arab Region Parliamentarians Against Corruption and Arab Anti-Corruption Organization, which are considered as Regional organizations but based in Lebanon, are members of ACINET's Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention Against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Syria

Last updated on 22 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 7 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

Last updated on 13 September 2023

General Information

Area: 185,180 km²

Population: 17 million (World Bank, 2019)

Political System: Parliamentary Republic

Human Development Index: 0.567/1 (UNDP, 2020)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 1194.21 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  838.21 Billion SYP (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 30.02% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Syria adopted its first Anti-Corruption Strategy in 2019.

 

Syria does not have laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Access to Information, Whistleblowers Protection, nor an Anti-Corruption Agency.

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Syria signed the UN Convention against Corruption on 9 December 2003 but did not become a state party yet.

 

Syria signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010.

 

Syria is not a member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption & Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not an Official member of ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Iraq

Last updated on 22 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

General Information

Area: 437,072 km²

Population: 41.18 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Democratic Federal Parliamentary 

Human Development Index: 0.686/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4748.22 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 156466.98 Billion IQD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt, % GDP: 51.79% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 4 of (Law No.15 of 1958). Some of its provisions were amended under Law.20 of 1963. Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under the (Law No. 30 of 2011) on the Commission of Integrity. Some of its provisions were amended by (Law No.30 of 2019). The provision is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Iraq does not have a law on Access to Information.

 

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized under (Law No. 58 of 2017). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Iraq adopted its third National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2021-2024). The first strategy was during the period (2010-2014) and the second was developed for the period (2016-2020) but was not passed.

 

The Federal Commission of Integrity was established under (Law No.30 of 2011) and amended by (Law No.30 in year 2019). Also, some provisions were added under (Order No.55) on the Commission of Integrity. The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions. 

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Iraq became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 17 March 2008.

 

In 2013, Iraq completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Iraq was reviewed by Malaysia and Jordan.

 

Iraq’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. Iraq should be reviewed by Niue and Cameroon.

 

Iraq became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 30 May 2013.

 

Each of the Federal Commission of Integrity, High Judicial Council and Federal Board of Supreme Audit are official members of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of "Shaaub for Democracy" and "Al Nahrain Foundation for Transparency and Integrity" are members of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Jordan

Last updated on 27 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

General Information

Area: 89,342 km²

Population: 10.27 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Parliamentary Hereditary Monarchy

Human Development Index: 0.720/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4064.57 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 28.92 Billion JOD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 94.08% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment was first criminalized under article 6 of (Law No.54 of 2006 on Financial Disclosure). Later in 2014, illicit enrichment was criminalized in a separate (Law No.21 of 2014) then some of its provisions were amended by (Law No.40 of 2018). Additional provisions were amended also by (Law No. 25 of 2019).The law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests were organized under (Law No. 21 of 2014 on Illicit Enrichment) amended by Law No. 27 of 2017 and a second time by Law No. 40 of 2018. The regulations of the Asset Disclosure Department are organized under system No.111 of 2014 promulgated by article 21 of Law No.21 of 2014. The law is generally compatible with best practices on declaration of assets and interests.

 

Access Information is organized under (Law No.47 of 2007). According to the Global right to information rating, Jordan scored 56 out of 150 points in terms of the strength of the legal framework.

 

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized under (system No.62 of 2014) promulgated by articles 23 and 30 of (Law No.62 of 2006) on the Anti-Corruption Commission. This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption. 

 

National Integrity and Anti-Corruption Strategy (2020-2025) is Jordan’s updated version of its third strategy adopted (2017-2025). The first National Anti-Corruption strategy covered years (2008-2012) and the second covered years (2013- 2017).

 

Jordanian Integrity and Anti-Corruption Commission was established under (Law No. 62 of 2006) on the Anti-Corruption Commission. Legislation governing the commission’s work was amended by (Law No. 13 of 2016) on Integrity and Anti-Corruption and then (Law No. 25 of 2019). The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Jordan became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 24 February 2005.

 

In 2012, Jordan completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Jordan was reviewed by Maldives and Nigeria.

 

Jordan’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. Jordan should be reviewed by Turkmenistan and Lebanon.

 

Jordan became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 November 2012.

 

Each of the Anti-Corruption Commission, Ministry of Justice, and Public Prosecution are official members of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, each of the Partners Jordan, Jordan Transparency Center, and Rasheed Coalition for Integrity and Transparency are members of ACINET’s Non- Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Saudi Arabia

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

Last updated on 13 September 2023

General Information

Area: 2.15 million km²

Population: 34.34 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Hereditary Monarchy

Human Development Index: 0.875/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 19753.31 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  756.03 Billion SAR (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 28.36% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Saudi Arabia adopted its National Strategy for Maintaining Integrity and Combating Corruption through (Resolution No. 13 in 2007). There is no specific timeframe for this strategy.

 

The Oversight and Anti-Corruption Authority in Saudi Arabia (Nazaha) was established by a (Royal decree No. A/ 65 of 2011) and through (Cabinet Resolution No. 165 of 2011) on the organization of the oversight authority. It undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

 

Saudi Arabia does not have laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Access to Information, nor on Whistleblowers' Protection.

Laws
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Other information

Saudi Arabia became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 29 April 2013.

 

In 2015, Saudi Arabia completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Saudi Arabia was reviewed by Cambodia and Mozambique.

 

In 2018, Saudi Arabia completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Saudi Arabia was reviewed by Nauru and Ireland.

 

Saudi Arabia became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 29 September 2014.

 

The National Anti-Corruption Commission-NAZAHA in Saudi Arabia is an official member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET.

Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Oman

Last updated on 22 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 6 September 2023

Last updated on 7 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

General Information

Area: 309,501 km²

Population: 4.22 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Royal Hereditary

Human Development Index: 0.816/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 13844.36 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  17.08 Billion OMR (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 63.86% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under Article 12 of (Law No. 112 of 2011) on protecting public money and preventing conflict of interests. In 2012, (Decision No.101) was issued to determine the asset disclosure by government officials. In addition to guidelines on filling out the financial disclosure form for the government officials issued by Decision No.61 of 2016. The law is partially compatible with best practices on asset declaration.

 

Anti-Corruption Agency of Oman is the State Audit Institution, established under (Royal decree No.111 of 2011). This agency has a preventive function only without an investigative role.

 

Oman does not have laws on Access to Information, Illicit Enrichment, Whistleblowers Protection, nor a National Anti-Corruption Strategy. 

 

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Oman became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 9 January 2014.

 

In 2015, Oman completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the executive summary and the full country report were published. Oman was reviewed by Kiribati and Saudi Arabia.

 

In 2019, Oman completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The executive summary was published. Oman was reviewed by Saudi Arabia and Canada.

 

Oman became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 11 June 2013.

 

Oman is not a member of Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET) nor its Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

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Yemen

Last updated on 27 August 2023

Last updated on 8 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 9 September 2023

Last updated on 11 September 2023

Last updated on 12 September 2023

Last updated on 13 September 2023

General Information

Area: 527,968 km²

Population: 30.49 million (World Bank, 2021)

Human Development Index: 0.455/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 716.90 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  10612.22 Billion YER (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 56.81% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 5 of (Law No.30 of 2006) on Asset Disclosure. Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.30 of 2006). The law is generally compatible with best practices on asset and interest declaration.

 

Access to Information Law is organized under (Law No.13 of 2012). According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Yemen scored 103/150 points for the strength of the legal framework.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under chapter 3 of (Law No.39 of 2006). This provision is compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Yemen's National Anti-Corruption Strategy was adopted in 2022 for 5 years (NACS 2022-2026)

 

A National Anti-Corruption Commission in Yemen was established by Anti-Corruption (Law No.39 of 2006). The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

Laws
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with articles 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Yemen became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 7 November 2005.

 

In 2016, Yemen completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Yemen was reviewed by the United Arab Emirates and Sao Tome and Principe.

 

Yemen’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. Yemen should be reviewed by Kiribati and Sri Lanka.

 

Yemen signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a State member yet.

 

Each of the Ministry of Justice, Supreme National Authority for Combating Corruption, Central Organization for Control and Auditing, Public Prosecution for Public Funds, High Authority for Tender Control in Yemen are official members of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of the Human Rights Information and Training Center and Studies and Economic Media Center are members of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

 

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and nor its Non-Governmental Group