• National Anti-Corruption Strategy
  • Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network
  • United Nations Convention Against Corruption
  • Arab Convention Against Corruption
  • Specialized Anti-Corruption Agency
  • Access to Information
  • Declaration of Assets and Interests
  • Protection of Whistle-blowers
  • Criminalization of Illicit Enrichment
  • Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Somalia
  • Kuwait
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Tunisia
  • Comoros
  • Algeria
  • Lebanon
  • Syria
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  • Oman
  • Yemen
  • Djibouti
  • Palestine
  • Libya
  • Egypt
  • Sudan
  • Morocco
  • Bahrain
  • Qatar
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Exist
  • under development
  • Does not exist
  • -


  • Represented in ACINET and its Non-governmental Group
  • Member of ACINET
  • Not represented in ACINET and its Non-governmental Group
  • State party
  • Signatory state
  • Not a State party nor a Signatory state
  • State party
  • Signatory party
  • Not a State party nor a Signatory state
  • Exists and operational
  • Exists but not operational
  • Does not exist

    The colors in the key map are based on the Global Right to Information (Rti) rating, which measures the strength of the legal framework for the right to access information, on a scale ranging from 0 (the weakest legal framework) to 150 (the strongest legal framework).

  • More than 75
  • Less than 75
  • Does not exist
  • Not assessed

    The colors in the key map are based on the extent to which the legal texts related to declaration of assets and interests are compatible with good practices derived from international standards and comparative experiences, including: the obligation to submit statements periodically, the comprehensiveness of the content of the declaration, the existence of a mechanism to regularly verify the validity and integrity of the information declared, the existence of deterrent penalties at all levels, and the extent of transparency in sharing the information while protecting personal data. 

  • Generally compatible
  • Partially compatible
  • Does not exist

    The colors in the key map are based on the compatibility of the protection of whistle-blowers’ provisions with article 33 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption in all Arab countries. 

  • Generally compatible
  • Partially compatible
  • Does not exist

    The colors in the key map are based on the compatibility of the criminalization of illicit enrichment’s provisions with article 20 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption in all Arab countries. 

  • Generally compatible
  • Partially compatible
  • Does not exist / incompatible

    Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of Transparency International ranks countries by measuring the perceived levels of public sector corruption on a scale from 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean). Results shown on the map are the 2020 CPI results.

  • 67 to 100
  • 34 to 66
  • 0 to 33
Kuwait Saudi Arabia Tunisia Djibouti Somalia Libya Morocco Mauritania Sudan Yemen United Arab Emirates Jordan Oman Qatar Palestine Bahrain Iraq Egypt Syria Lebanon Comoros Algeria

Mauritania

Algeria

Tunisia

Lebanon

Syria

Iraq

Jordan

Saudi Arabia

Oman

Yemen

Djibouti

Somalia

Palestine

Libya

Egypt

Sudan

Morocco

Kuwait

Bahrain

Qatar

United Arab Emirates

Comoros

CLOSE
Mauritania

Last updated on 7 December 2022

Biography

Area: 1.03 million km²

Population: 4.52 million (World Bank, 2019)

Political System:

Human Development Index: 0.546 out of 1 (UNDP, 2020) 

Key Information

GDP/capita: 1649.46 USD (UNCTADSTAT data center,2019)

Gross Debt:  1745.70 Billion MRU (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt % GDP: 79.27% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under Article 16 of the Anti-Corruption Act.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under Law No.54 of 2007 on Financial Transparency in public life and the circulars issued by financial transparency committee for public life. The provision is partially compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Whistleblower Protection is organized under Article 19 of the Anti-Corruption Act.

 

Mauritania does not have a National Anti-Corruption Strategy, however there is an Anti-Bribery strategy since 2011.

 

Mauritania does not have laws on Access to Information nor a Specialized Anti-Corruption Agency.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with articles 32 and 33 of United Nations Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Mauritania became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 25 October 2006.

 

In 2017, Mauritania completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters 3 and 4 of the UN Convention against Corruption. The executive summary was published. Mauritania was reviewed by the Central African Republic and Marshall Islands. 

 

Mauritania’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters 2 and 5 of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 2 of the review cycle (2017-2018). It is not yet completed. Mauritania should be reviewed by Nigeria and Philippines.

 

Mauritania signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a State member yet.

 

The State Inspectorate General in Mauritania joined Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, Réseau Mauritanien pour l’Action Sociale joined ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Algeria

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 2.382 million km²

Population: 44.62 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Semi - Presidential

Human Development Index: 0.745/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4119.43 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  9996.95 Billion DZD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 49.15% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is organized under article 37 of (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption. This provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under article 4 of (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption and through the Presidential Decree No.415-06 of 2006 which explains procedures for submitting financial disclosure documents for public servants who are not listed in the law. The decree also provides a complete list of public servants that are required to submit financial disclosure documents. This provision is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Algeria does not have laws on Access to Information nor Whistleblowers Protection.

 

National Anti-Corruption Strategy is currently under development in Algeria.

 

The National Corruption Prevention and Control Organization (ONPLC) in Algeria was established under (Law No. 01 of 2006) on preventing and combating corruption. Also, the Presidential Decree No.413-06 of 2006 specified the guidelines of the National Corruption Prevention and Control Organization and its functions. The agency has a preventive function only without an investigative role.

Laws and des
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and Operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with articles 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Other information

Algeria became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 25 August 2004.

 

In 2015, Algeria completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters 3 and 4 of the UN Convention against Corruption. The full (country report) was published. Algeria was reviewed by Niger and Latvia.

 

In 2020, Algeria completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters 2 and 5 of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) of the country report was published. Algeria was reviewed by Kenya and Ghana.

 

Algeria became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 30 October 2014.

 

The National Body for the Prevention and Combating of Corruption in Algeria is an official member of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

UN Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET only Not an official member of ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Tunisia

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 163,610 km²

Population: 11.94 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Quasi/Reformed Parliamentary

Human Development Index: 0.731 / 1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 3938.67 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  90.92 Billion TND (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 78.67% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is organized under article 37 of (Law No.46 of 2018) on asset and interest declarations, illicit enrichment and conflict of interest. This provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.46 of 2018) on asset and interest declarations, illicit enrichment and conflict of interest. In addition to the governmental order (No.818 of 2018) on adopting the template of Declaration of assets and interests, and minimum threshold of assets, loans, and gifts to be declared. This law is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Access to Information is organized under (Law No.22 of 2016). According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Tunisia scored 120/150 points for best practices.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under (Law No.10 of 2017). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption 

 

Tunisia adopted a National Anti-Corruption and Good Governance Strategy during the period (2016-2020).

 

Instance Nationale de Lutte Contre la Corruption was established under some provisions of the (framework Decree No. 120 of 2011) related to Anti-Corruption. Some of its provisions were amended by the (Law No. 59 of 2017) on Good Governance and Anti -Corruption Commission. The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions however it is currently not operational.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Tunisia became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 23 September 2008.

 

In 2015, Tunisia completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Tunisia was reviewed by Côte d'Ivoire and Togo.

 

Tunisia’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption is scheduled for Year 5 of the review cycle (2020-2021). Tunisia should be reviewed by Rwanda and Ethiopia.

 

Tunisia signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state member.

 

Each of the Court of Accounts, Commission of General Control of Public Departments at the Prime Ministry, High Authority for Administrative and Financial Control, Anti-Corruption Commission, Ministry of Governance and Anti-corruption, and Ministry of Justice in Tunisia are official members of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, each of the Tunisian Association for Financial Transparency, Alliance Tunisienne pour l’Intégrité et la Transparence, Faculty of Social, Justice and Political Sciences, University of Tunisia and Institut Arab des Chefs d’Entreprises are members of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Lebanon

Last updated on 5 December 2022

Biography

Area: 10,452 km2

Population: 6.76 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Parliamentary Democratic Republic 

Human Development Index: 0.706/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 7174.74USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 146518.15 Billion LBP (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 161.82% (IMF, 2020)
 

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

 

Illicit enrichment is organized under article 10 of (Law No.189 of 2020). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.189 of 2020). This law is generally compatible with the best practices on declarations of assets and interests. 

 

Access to Information is organized under (Law 28 of 2017). In 2021, it was amended by (Law No. 233) and the (decree No.6940) was issued determining the specifications of implementing Law No.28 of 2017. According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Lebanon scored 70/150 points for best practices.

 

Whistleblower Protection is organized under (Law No.83 of 2018). The law was amended in May 2020 extending protections to witnesses, experts and victims of corruption under (Law No.182). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Lebanon's National Anti-Corruption Strategy was adopted in May 2020 for 5 years (2020-2025). A year later in 2021, Lebanon published the (Report on progress of implementation). 

 

The National Anti-Corruption Commission was established by (Law No. 175 of 2020) on "anti-corruption in the public sector and the creation of the National Anti-Corruption Institution". Members of the commission were appointed in 2022 and it is currently operational. The commission has preventive and investigative measures.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Lebanon became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 22 April 2009.

 

In 2016, Lebanon completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the (executive summary) and the (full country report) were published. Lebanon was reviewed by Iran and Seychelles.

 

Lebanon’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption is scheduled for Year 5 of the review cycle (2020-2021). Lebanon should be reviewed by Cambodia and Mali.

 

Each of the Court of Audit, Central Inspection Bureau, Ministry of Justice, Public Prosecution, Ministry of State for Administrative Reform, Higher Committee for Discipline in Lebanon are Official Members of Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of the Lebanese Transparency Association, Gherbal Initiative, as well as each of Arab Region Parliamentarians Against Corruption and Arab Anti-Corruption Organization, which are considered as Regional organizations but based in Lebanon, are members of ACINET's Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention Against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Syria

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 185,180 km²

Population: 17 million (World Bank, 2019)

Political System: Parliamentary Republic

Human Development Index: 0.567/1 (UNDP, 2020)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 1194.21 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  838.21 Billion SYP (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 30.02% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Syria adopted its first Anti-Corruption Strategy in 2019.

 

Syria does not have laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Access to Information, Whistleblowers Protection, nor an Anti-Corruption Agency.

Laws and des
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Other information

Syria signed the UN Convention against Corruption on 9 December 2003 but did not become a state party yet.

 

Syria signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010.

 

Syria is not a member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

Arab Anti-Corruption & Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not an Official member of ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Iraq

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 437,072 km²

Population: 41.18 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Democratic Federal Parliamentary 

Human Development Index: 0.686/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4748.22 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 156466.98 Billion IQD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt, % GDP: 51.79% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 4 of (Law No.15 of 1958). Some of its provisions were amended under (Law.20 of 1963). Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under the (Law No. 30 of 2011) on the Commission of Integrity. Some of its provisions were amended by (Law No.30 of 2019). The provision is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Iraq does not have a law on Access to Information.

 

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized under (Law No. 58 of 2017). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Iraq adopted the first National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2010-2014) and prepared its second strategy (2016-2020) but was not passed. In 2021, Iraq's Council of Ministers approved the National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2020-2024).

 

The Federal Commission of Integrity was established under (Law No.30 of 2011) and amended by (Law No.30 in year 2019). Also, some provisions were added under (Order No.55) on the Commission of Integrity. The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions. 

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Iraq became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 17 March 2008.

 

In 2013, Iraq completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Iraq was reviewed by Malaysia and Jordan.

 

Iraq’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. Iraq should be reviewed by Niue and Cameroon.

 

Iraq became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 30 May 2013.

 

Each of the Higher Judicial Council, Board of Supreme Audit, and the Commission of Integrity in Iraq are official members of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, Shaaub for Democracy Culture Establishment is a member of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Jordan

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 89,342 km²

Population: 10.27 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Parliamentary Hereditary Monarchy

Human Development Index: 0.720/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4064.57 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 28.92 Billion JOD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 94.08% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment was first criminalized under article 6 of (Law No.54 of 2006 on Financial Disclosure). Later in 2014, illicit enrichment was criminalized in a separate (Law No.21 of 2014) then some of its provisions were amended by (Law No.40 of 2018). Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests were organized under (Law No. 21 of 2014 on Illicit Enrichment) amended by Law No. 27 of 2017 and a second time by Law No. 40 of 2018. The regulations of the Asset Disclosure Department are organized under system No.111 of 2014 promulgated by article 21 of Law No.21 of 2014. The law is generally compatible with best practices on declaration of assets and interests.

 

Access Information is organized under (Law No.47 of 2007). According to the Global right to information rating, Jordan scored 56 out of 150 points in terms of best practices.

 

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized under (system No.62 of 2014) promulgated by articles 23 and 30 of (Law No.62 of 2006) on the Anti-Corruption Commission. This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption. 

 

National Integrity and Anti-Corruption Strategy (2020-2025) is Jordan’s updated version of its third strategy adopted (2017-2025). The first National Anti-Corruption strategy covered years (2008-2012) and the second covered years (2013- 2017).

 

Jordanian Integrity and Anti-Corruption Commission was established under (Law No. 62 of 2006) on the Anti-Corruption Commission. Legislation governing the commission’s work was amended by (Law No. 13 of 2016) on Integrity and Anti-Corruption and then (Law No. 25 of 2019). The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Jordan became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 24 February 2005.

 

In 2012, Jordan completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Jordan was reviewed by Maldives and Nigeria.

 

Jordan’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. Jordan should be reviewed by Turkmenistan and Lebanon.

 

Jordan became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 November 2012.

 

Each of the Anti-Corruption Commission, Ministry of Justice, and Public Prosecution are official members of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, each of the Partners Jordan, Jordan Transparency Center, and Rasheed Coalition for Integrity and Transparency are members of ACINET’s Non- Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Saudi Arabia

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 2.15 million km²

Population: 34.34 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Hereditary Monarchy

Human Development Index: 0.875/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 19753.31 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  756.03 Billion SAR (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 28.36% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Saudi Arabia adopted its National Strategy for Maintaining Integrity and Combating Corruption through (Resolution No. 13 in 2007). There is no specific timeframe for this strategy.

 

The National Anti-Corruption Commission in Saudi Arabia was established by a (Royal decree No. (A/ 65) of 2011) establishing the National Anti-Corruption Commission and Cabinet Resolution No. 165 of 2011 on the organization of the National Anti-Corruption Commission. It undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

 

Saudi Arabia does not have laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Access to Information, nor on Whistleblowers' Protection.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Saudi Arabia became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 29 April 2013.

 

In 2015, Saudi Arabia completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Saudi Arabia was reviewed by Cambodia and Mozambique.

 

In 2018, Saudi Arabia completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Saudi Arabia was reviewed by Nauru and Ireland.

 

Saudi Arabia became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 29 September 2014.

 

The National Anti-Corruption Commission-NAZAHA in Saudi Arabia is an official member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Oman

Last updated on 8 December 2022

Biography

Area: 309,501 km²

Population: 4.22 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Royal Hereditary

Human Development Index: 0.816/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 13844.36 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  17.08 Billion OMR (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 63.86% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under Article 12 of (Law No. 112 of 2011) on protecting public money and preventing conflict of interests. In 2012, (Decision No.101) was issued to determine the asset disclosure by government officials. In addition to guidelines on filling out the financial disclosure form for the government officials issued by Decision No.61 of 2016. The law is partially compatible with best practices on asset declaration.

 

Anti-Corruption Agency of Oman is the State Audit Institution, established under (Royal decree No.111 of 2011). This agency has a preventive function only without an investigative role.

 

Oman does not have laws on Access to Information, Illicit Enrichment, Whistleblowers Protection, nor a National Anti-Corruption Strategy. 

 

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Oman became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 9 January 2014.

 

In 2015, Oman completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the executive summary and the full country report were published. Oman was reviewed by Kiribati and Saudi Arabia.

 

In 2019, Oman completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The executive summary was published. Oman was reviewed by Saudi Arabia and Canada.

 

Oman became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 11 June 2013.

 

Oman is not a member of Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET) nor its Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Yemen

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 527,968 km²

Population: 30.49 million (World Bank, 2021)

Human Development Index: 0.455/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 716.90 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  10612.22 Billion YER (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 56.81% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 5 of (Law No.30 of 2006) on Asset Disclosure. Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.30 of 2006). The law is generally compatible with best practices on asset and interest declaration.

 

Access to Information Law is organized under (Law No.13 of 2012). According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Yemen scored 103/150 points for best practices.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under chapter 3 of (Law No.39 of 2006). This provision is compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Yemen's National Anti-Corruption Strategy was adopted in 2022 for 5 years (NACS 2022-2026)

 

A National Anti-Corruption Commission in Yemen was established by Anti-Corruption (Law No.39 of 2006). The commission undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with articles 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Yemen became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 7 November 2005.

 

In 2016, Yemen completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Yemen was reviewed by the United Arab Emirates and Sao Tome and Principe.

 

Yemen’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. Yemen should be reviewed by Kiribati and Sri Lanka.

 

Yemen signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a State member yet.

 

Each of the Ministry of Justice, Supreme National Authority for Combating Corruption, Central Organization for Control and Auditing, Public Prosecution for Public Funds, High Authority for Tender Control in Yemen are official members of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of the Human Rights Information and Training Center and Studies and Economic Media Center are members of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

 

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Djibouti

Last updated on 7 December 2022

Biography

Area: 23,200 km²

Population: 1.002 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Semi-Presidential Republic

Human Development Index: 0.509/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 3183.33 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  131.55Billion DJF (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 45.77% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under chapter 2 of (Law No.111/ AN/ 11 of 2011) on the fight against terrorism and other serious offenses. The provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No. n°03/AN/13/7ème) on prevention and combating of corruption. The law is partially compatible with best practices on declaration of assets.

 

Djibouti does not have an Access to Information law, Whistleblowers Protection law, nor a National Anti-Corruption Strategy.

 

The Independent National Commission for Preventing and Combating Corruption (CNIPLC) in Djibouti was established under Law No. n°03/AN/13/7ème on the prevention and combating of corruption, but the agency is not yet operational. It is supposed to take preventive and investigative roles.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global ATI rating above 75 Global ATI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Djibouti became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 20 April 2005.

 

In 2017, Djibouti completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Djibouti was reviewed by Liberia and Peru.

 

Djibouti’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 2 of the review cycle (2017-2018). It is not yet completed. Djibouti should be reviewed by Botswana and Gabon.

 

Djibouti signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party.

 

The State Inspectorate General in Djibouti is an official member of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACIENT. Also, BENDER DJEDID Organization for Socio-economic Development is a member of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official member of ACINET Not a member of ACINET

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Somalia

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 637,657 km²

Population: 16.36 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Federal Democratic Republic

Human Development Index: N/A

Key Information

GDP/capita: 106.78 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross debt: N/A

Gross debt as % GDP: N/A

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Somalia adopted its National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2020-2023).

 

Somalia does not have laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Access to Information, Whistleblowers Protection, nor on a Specialized Anti-Corruption Agency.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National anti-corruption agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Somalia is not a state party in UN Convention against Corruption, Arab Convention against Corruption, nor a member of Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET) and its Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Palestine

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 6,220 km²

Population: 4.923 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Parliamentary Democratic

Human Development Index: 0.715/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 3182.42 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: N/A

Gross debt as % GDP: N/A

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 20 of (Law No.1 of 2005). The Law was amended in 2010 and renamed as (amended anti-corruption law). Even though there is a provision, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption. 

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under some provisions of the (amended anti-corruption law No.1 of 2005). These provisions are generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Palestine does not have a law on Access to Information.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under the government decision (No. 17 of 2019) on the system for protection of whistleblowers, witnesses, informants, experts in corruption cases, their relatives, and persons close to them. The law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

The third National Strategy for Integrity and Anti-Corruption was adopted for the period (2020-2022). The first National Anti-Corruption Strategy covered the years (2012-2014) and the second covered years (2015-2018)

 

The Palestinian Anti-Corruption Commission was established under the (amended anti-corruption law No.1 of 2005). It undertakes preventive and investigative functions.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

The State of Palestine became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 2 April 2014.

 

In 2015, Palestine completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the (executive summary) and the (full country report) were published. Palestine was reviewed by Oman and Micronesia.

 

In 2021, Palestine completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. Only the (executive summary) was published. Palestine was reviewed by Malaysia and Burkina Faso.

 

The State of Palestine became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 May 2013.

 

Each of the State Audit and Administrative Control Bureau, Ministry of Justice and Anti-Corruption Commission in the state of Palestine are official members of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of the Coalition for Accountability and Integrity, Palestinian Center for the Independence of Judiciary, and SHAMS center are members of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Libya

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 1.76 million km²

Population: 6.959 million (World Bank, 2021)

Human Development Index: 0.718/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 4630.10 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019) 

Gross debt: N/A

Gross debt as % GDP: N/A

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No.3 of 1970) and was later replaced by (Law No.3 of 1986). Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under Law No. 10 of 1994 on Illicit Enrichment And the General People’s Committee Secretariat Decision No. 395 of 1374 and 2006 to form a committee for verifying declarations. The law is generally compatible with best practices on asset declaration.

 

Libya does not have a law on Access to Information, Whistleblowers' Protection, nor a National Anti-Corruption Strategy.

 

The National Anti-Corruption Commission in Libya was established under (Law No.11 of 2014). The commission has a preventive function without an investigative role.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Libya became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 7 June 2005.

 

In 2018, Libya completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the (executive summary) and the (full country report) were published. Libya was reviewed by Mozambique and Namibia.

 

Libya’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 3 of the review cycle (2018-2019). It is not yet completed. State of Libya should be reviewed by Morocco and Venezuela.

 

Libya signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a State member yet.

 

The Ministry of Justice in Libya is an official member of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network. Also, Libyan Transparency Association is a member of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official member of ACINET Not an official member of ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Egypt

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 1.01 million km²

Population: 104.3 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Semi-Presidential Democratic Republic

Human Development Index: 0.731/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 3837.48 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 4953.82 Billion EGP (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 83.79% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under (Law No. 62 of 1975). Some of its provisions were later amended by (Presidential decree No.1112 in 1975) and (Presidential decree No. 628 in 1976). Even though there is a law, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Assets and Interests Declaration is organized under (Law No. 62 of 1975) amended by the President’s decision to Law No. 97 of 2015 amending some of the provision. The law is partially compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Egypt does have laws on Access to Information nor Whistleblowers Protection.

 

Egypt is currently implementing the National Anti-corruption Strategy (2019-2022) with the (first progress report 2020) on the implementation made public. 

 

The Administrative Control Authority is Egypt's anti-corruption agency undertaking preventive and investigative functions.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Egypt became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 25 February 2005.

 

In 2015, Egypt completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Egypt was reviewed by Burkina Faso and Algeria.

 

In 2020, Egypt completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Egypt was reviewed by Lesotho and Serbia.

 

Egypt became a State party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 18 June 2014. 

 

Each of the Administrative Control Agency, Central Auditing Organization, Ministry of State for Administrative Development, Ministry of Interior General Directorate of Public Funds Intelligence, Administrative Prosecution Authority, Ministry of Justice - National Coordinating Committee for Combating Corruption in Egypt are official members of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, the Egyptian Junior Business Association is a member of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not a member of ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Sudan

Last updated on 7 December 2022

Biography

Area: 1.886 million km²

Population: 44.91 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Presidential Democratic

Human Development Index: 0.508 /1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 2083.45 USD (UNCTADSTAT ,2019)

Gross Debt:  4807.03 Billion SDG (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 212.76% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 164 of (Law 1984 on Civil Transactions). Later, it was criminalized under article 6 of the (Illicit and Suspicious Enrichment Act of 1989). Even though there is a provision, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption 

 

Access to Information is organized under (Law of 2015). According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Sudan scored 63/150 points on best practices.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under article 14 of Law No.8 of 2016 on the National Commission for Transparency, Integrity and Combating Corruption. This provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption. 

 

The National Commission for Transparency, Integrity and Combating Corruption was established under (Law No.8 of 2016) on the National Commission for Transparency, Integrity and Combating Corruption. The commission undertakes preventive functions without an investigative role.

 

Sudan does not have a law on Asset and Interests Declaration nor a National Anti-Corruption Strategy.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of United Nations Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Sudan became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 5 September 2014.

 

Sudan’s first review cycle for the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2013-2014). It is not yet completed. Sudan should be reviewed by Angola and Palestine.

 

Sudan’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 2 of the review cycle (2017-2018). It is not yet completed. Sudan should be reviewed by Tunisia and Austria.

 

Sudan became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 23 October 2012.

 

The Ministry of Justice in Sudan is an official member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Morocco

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 446,550 km²

Population: 37.34 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Constitutional, Monarchy, Parliamentary

Human Development Index: 0.683/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 3224.81 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  765.26 Billion MAD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 64.54% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is not organized for in the Moroccan law.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.25 of 1992) on Asset Disclosure and later under (Dahir No. 1.07.202) on the implementation of Law No.54.06 in 2008 refers to elected local councils and trade chambers and certain categories of employees or public officials. Also, (Dahir No.1.08.72 of 2008) specifies the status of the governments’ members and the establishment of their courts. This law is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Access to Information is organized under (Law No.31.13 of 2015) passed by (Royal decree No. 1.18.15 of 2018). According to the Global Right to Information Rating, Morocco scored 73/150 points for best practices.

 

Whistleblowers' Protection is organized under Law No. 37.10 in 2011 on the Protection of victims, witnesses, experts and whistleblowers in case of bribery, embezzlement, power abuse and others and by (Dahir No. 1.11.164) of 2011 for the Implementation of Law No. 37.10 on Amending the Law on Protecting Whistleblowers, Witnesses, Experts and Reports of Corruption. This law is generally compatible with the requirements of articles 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption. 

 

Morocco adopted a National Anti-Corruption Strategy for the period (2016-2025).

 

The National Authority for Probity Prevention and Fight Against Corruption is organized under (Law 46-19 of 2021). The agency undertakes preventive and investigative roles. 

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Morocco became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 9 May 2007.

 

In 2012, Morocco completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and iv of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) & the (full country report) were published. Morocco was reviewed by South Africa and Slovakia.

 

In 2019, Morocco completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Morocco was reviewed by Senegal and Finland.

 

Morocco became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 26 September 2012.

 

Each of the Ministry of Justice and Liberties, Central Authority for Corruption Prevention, and Ministry of Modernization of Public Function which became Ministry in charge of Public Function and Modernization of the Administration are official members of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Also, each of the Moroccan Network for Defending Public Funds and Transparency Maroc are members of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Kuwait

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 17,818 km²

Population: 4.32 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy

Human Development Index: 0.831/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 27623.48 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  16.51 Billion KWD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 17.40% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under article 48 of (Law No.2 of 2016) establishing the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority and special provisions on asset declaration. Even though there is a provision, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.2 of 2016) establishing the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority and the provisions on disclosure of assets and liabilities. In addition to (Decree No.300 of 2016) on the procedures for declaring their assets. The provision is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Access Information law was adopted in 2020. In 2021, a (ministerial decision No.62) is issued to determine the executive regulations of Law No.12 of 2020 on the Right to Access information. According to the Global right to information rating, Kuwait scored 54/150 points for best practices.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under part V of (Decree for Law No. 24 of 2012) on the establishment of the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority and special provisions on asset declaration. Some of its provisions were amended under (Law No.2 of 2016) and its (Decree No.300 of 2016) for the promulgation of the executive regulations for Law No.2 of 2016 on the establishment of the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority and special provisions on asset declaration. This provision is generally compatible with the requirements of articles 32 and 33 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption. 

 

Kuwait adopted its Anti-Corruption Strategy for the years (2019-2024). The commission then shared the first report on progress towards implementation (2020) and the second report (2021)

 

Kuwait Anti-Corruption Commission was established under (Law No.2 of 2016).The commission undertakes preventive functions only without an investigative role.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers' Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Kuwait became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 16 February 2007.

 

In 2013, Kuwait completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. Both the (executive summary) and the (full country report) were published. Kuwait was reviewed by Sri Lanka and Ethiopia.

 

Kuwait’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 2 of the review cycle (2017-2018). It is not yet completed. Kuwait should be reviewed by Kyrgyzstan and Antigua and Barbuda.

 

Kuwait became a state party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 5 September 2013.

 

The Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority’ is an official member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, Kuwait Transparency Society is a member of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group.

UN Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Bahrain

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 765.3 km²

Population: 1.74 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Constitutional monarchy

Human Development Index: 0.875/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 21177.82 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  17.08 Billion BD (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 106.86% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is criminalized under articles 6,9, and 11 of (Law No.32 of 2010 on Financial Disclosure). Even though there is a provision, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.32 of 2010 on Financial Disclosure) promulgated by decree No.82 of 2012. (Decree No.19 of 2016) and (Decree No.23 of 2017) both amended some provisions of Law No.32 of 2010. The law is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Bahrain does not have an Access to Informationlaw, a Whistleblowers Protection law, nor a National Anti-Corruption Strategy.

 

Bahrain does not have a National Anti-Corruption Agency, but (Decree No.109 of 2011), declares that the General Directorate of Anti-Corruption and Economic and Electronic Crimes is responsible for the prevention of corruption crimes.

Laws and des
Ilicit Enrichment Compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of assets & interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblower Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National anti-corruption strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National anti-corruption agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Bahrain became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 5 October 2010.

 

In 2015, Bahrain completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) of the country report was published. Bahrain was reviewed by Jordan and Honduras.

 

In 2020, Bahrain completed the second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) of the country report was published. Bahrain was reviewed by Saudi Arabia and Sweden.

 

Bahrain signed the Arab Convention against Corruption on 21 December 2010 but did not become a state party. 

 

Each of the Public Prosecution and Ministry of Interior - General Directorate of Anti-Corruption and Economic and Electronic Crime in Bahrain are official members of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET. Also, the Bahrain Transparency Society is a memebr of ACINET’s Non-Governmental Group

UN Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a State Party nor a Signatory State
Arab Convention against Corruption State Party Signatory State Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official member in ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Qatar

Last updated on 6 December 2022

Biography

Area: 11,571 km²

Population: 2.93 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Constitutional Hereditary Emirate

Human Development Index: 0.855/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 60013.32 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt:  348.49 Billion QAR (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % of GDP: 47.97% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

The Anti-Corruption Agency in Qatar is called "The Administrative Control and Transparency Authority", it was established by the (Emiri resolution No.75 of 2011). Some of its provisions were amended by (Emiri resolution No.6 of 2015) on re-organizing the Administrative Control and Transparency Authority. Even though there is a provision, it does not comply with the requirements of article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption.

 

Access to Information is organized in (Law No.9 of 2022).

 

Qatar does not have Laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Whistleblowers Protection, nor a National Anti-corruption Strategy.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Qatar became a state party to the UN Convention against Corruption on 30 January 2007.

 

In 2015, Qatar completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. Qatar was reviewed by Micronesia and Dominica.

 

Qatar’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption is scheduled for Year 5 of the review cycle (2020-2021). Qatar should be reviewed by Palestine and Guinea.

 

Qatar became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 5 March 2012.

 

Each of the National Committee for Integrity and Transparency and the Public Prosecution in Qatar is an official member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET).

UN Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
United Arab Emirates

Last updated on 7 December 2022

Biography

Area: 83,600 km²

Population: 9.99 million (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Federal Constitution

Human Development Index: 0.911 /1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/capita: 39042.15 USD (UNCTADSTAT ,2019)

Gross Debt:  317.78 Billion AED (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 20.32% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under (Law No. 14 of 2020). This law is generally compatible with the requirements of article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption 

 

Emirates does not have laws on Illicit Enrichment, Declaration of Assets and Interests, Access to Information, a National Anti-Corruption Strategy, nor a National Anti-Corruption Agency.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention Against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-corruption Agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

United Arab Emirates became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 22 February 2006

 

In 2013, United Arab Emirates completed the first review cycle of the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption. The (executive summary) was published. United Arab Emirates (UAE) was reviewed by Maldives and Portugal.

 

United Arab Emirate’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2019-2020). It is not yet completed. United Arab Emirates should be reviewed by Myanmar and Kuwait.

 

United Arab Emirates became a State Party to the Arab Convention against Corruption on 4 July 2012.

 

United Arab Emirates is not a member of the Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network ACINET.

UN Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Convention against Corruption State party Signatory state Not a state party nor a signatory state
Arab Anti-corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official Member of ACINET Not represented in ACINET nor its Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

CLOSE
Comoros

Last updated on 22 September 2022

Biography

Area: 1,861 km²

Population: 888,456 (World Bank, 2021)

Political System: Federal Republic

Human Development Index: 0.558/1 (UNDP, 2021)

Key Information

GDP/Capita: 1321.30 USD (UNCTADSTAT, 2019)

Gross Debt: 94.90 Billion KMF (IMF, 2020)

Gross Debt as % GDP: 28.208% (IMF, 2020)

Specialized Anti-Corruption Laws

Illicit Enrichment is organized under article 166 of (Law No.08-13 of 2008) on Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities. The provision is generally compatible with the requirements of article 20 of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.

 

Declaration of Assets and Interests is organized under (Law No.08-13 of 2008) on Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities. The provision is generally compatible with best practices of declaration of assets and interests.

 

Comoros does not have Access to Information law.

 

Whistleblowers Protection is organized under (Law No.08-13 of 2008) on Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities. The provision is generally compatible with the requirements of articles 32 and 33 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption.

 

The National Anti-Corruption Strategy of Comoros was first adopted in 2012. There is no specific time frame for this strategy and no information if it’s still being implemented.

 

The National Commission for the Prevention and Fight against Corruption (CNPLC) in Comoros was established through Chapter 4 of Law No. 08-13 of 2008 on the Transparency of Public, Economic, Financial and Social Activities. The commission has a preventive function only without an investigative role.

Laws and des
Illicit Enrichment Compatible with article 20 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Not Compatible/Inexistent
Declaration of Assets and Interests Compatible with best practices of declaration of assets & interests Partially compatible Not Compatible/Inexistent
Access to Information Global RTI rating above 75 Global RTI rating below 75 Does not exist
Whistleblowers Protection Compatible with article 33 of the UN Convention against Corruption Partially compatible Does not exist/Incompatible
National Anti-Corruption Strategy Exists Under development Does not exist
National Anti-Corruption agency Exists and operational Exists but not operational Does not exist
Other information

Comoros became a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 11 October 2012.

 

Comoros’s first review cycle for the implementation of chapters III and IV of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 4 of the review cycle (2013-2014). It is not yet completed. Comoros should be reviewed by Sudan and Trinidad and Tobago. 

 

Comoros’s second review cycle for the implementation of chapters II and V of the UN Convention against Corruption was scheduled for Year 3 of the review cycle (2018-2019). It is not yet completed. Comoros should be reviewed by Malawi and Kuwait.

 

Comoros is not a State party to the Arab Convention against Corruption.

 

The “National Commission for the Prevention and Combating Corruption” in Comoros is an official member of the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network ACINET.

Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network Official Member of ACINET and its Non-Governmental Group Official member of ACINET Not an official member of ACINET norits Non-Governmental Group

Disclaimer: This overview is part of the informational series on “Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries”. It is developed and regularly updated by UNDP’s Regional Project on Anti-Corruption and Integrity in Arab Countries based on information that is collected and corroborated from open sources to the best ability of its team. UNDP does not warrant that the information is complete and correct and shall not be liable whatsoever for any damages incurred due to its use. For comments or inputs, please contact aciac@undp.org.

The Anti-Corruption and Integrity Map is a one-of-a-kind online tool that facilitates innovative dissemination of information regarding the Arab Countries and their efforts to tackle corruption.

 

The map documents the Arab Countries’ membership in the UN Convention against Corruption, the Arab Convention against Corruption, and the Arab Anti-Corruption and Integrity Network (ACINET). Among other features, the map includes a country-based database of legislation, key information, as well as the latest Corruption Perceptions Index results of Arab countries issued by Transparency International. Through comprehensive monitoring and evaluation, the map assesses the development of anti-corruption legal frameworks based on international standards.

 

For more details, browse the knowledge resources per country or per topic.